Sanctions with respect to Russia and Ukraine
There are three systems of sanctions with respect to Russia and the developments in Ukraine, all introduced by the EU.
The first system consists of measures against persons in Ukraine identified as responsible for the misappropriation of Ukrainian public assets and persons responsible for human rights violations in the country. These sanctions involve the freezing of assets and have so far been imposed on former Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych and a number of other representatives of the former regime.
The second system of sanctions consists of measures concerning actions that threaten or undermine the territorial integrity, sovereignty, independence, stability or security of Ukraine, or obstruct the work of international organisations in the country, and the transfer of ownership of companies in Crimea and Sevastopol in contravention of Ukrainian law. This system is, in turn, divided into two. One system involves individually targeted measures in the form of the freezing of assets and travel restrictions, and has been imposed on a number of persons and some organisations and companies on a list that has gradually been extended. The second, established later, involves special sectoral sanctions that were introduced against Russia and later stepped up because of Russia's conduct that is destabilising the situation in Ukraine.
The third system consists of restrictions on the import of goods from Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and has subsequently been extended to include measures against certain exports to, and a prohibition on investments in, these areas. Tourism-related services have also been prohibited. This is in response to Russia's illegal annexation of these areas.
The three systems are described separately.