Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy

Goal 7 is to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Illustration: The UN

Global access to modern and renewable energy and clean fuel is fundamental to meeting several of the challenges currently facing the world, including poverty, food security, climate change, clean water, health and inclusive economic growth.

A large proportion of the increased greenhouse gas emissions come from the way we extract, convert and use fossil energy. Fossil energy makes up almost 80 per cent of the total global energy supply. More forceful measures will be introduced to speed up the transition to a more sustainable energy system.

According to the International Energy Agency, demand for energy is expected to increase by 37 per cent by 2040. At the same time, a large proportion of the world's population is without access to electricity and an even larger proportion only has charcoal as their energy resource for cooking, which is a major environmental and health problem, primarily for women and girls. The lack of electricity and health and environmentally sustainable fuel is a major challenge to combating poverty.


7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

7.2 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology

7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support